A compendium of research articles and its relevancy to natural hormone replacement therapy:
Hormone replacement therapy in the geriatric patient: current state of the evidence and questions for the future. Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and thyroid hormone augmentation in geriatric clinical practice: part 1.
Successful Aging – Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Estrogen Actions in the Brain and the Basis for Differential Action in Men and Women: A Case for Sex-Specific Medicines
In summary, although many questions still need to be resolved, there is substantial evidence for the therapeutic benefits of estrogens in the brain, but current evidence suggests that beneficial effects found in females are not directly transferable to males. This is due to sex dimorphisms in the brain, which, contrary to early views, seem to be the norm rather than the exception. Together, these are powerful arguments that highlight the need for a sex-specific approach to novel hormone-dependent therapies.
Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.
Using total T criteria, incidence of hypogonadal T levels increased to about 20% of men over 60, 30% over 70 and 50% over 80 yr of age, and even greater percentages when free T index criteria were employed.
These issues bear on the potential use of T replacement in aging men, because aging and hypogonadism have, in common, reduced bone and lean body mass and muscle strength and increased total and abdominal fat.
Age trends in the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study.
Total T declined cross-sectionally at 0.8%/yr of age within the follow-up data, whereas both free and albumin-bound T declined at about 2%/yr, all significantly more steeply than within the baseline data.
Effects of testosterone on coronary vasomotor regulation in men with coronary heart disease.
Short-term intracoronary administration of testosterone, at physiological concentrations, induces coronary artery dilatation and increases coronary blood flow in men with established coronary artery disease.
Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes.
Testosterone replacement therapy reduces insulin resistance and improves glycaemic control in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Improvements in glycaemic control, insulin resistance, cholesterol and visceral adiposity together represent an overall reduction in cardiovascular risk.
Bioavailable testosterone in men with rheumatoid arthritis-high frequency of hypogonadism.
Men with RA had lower levels of bioavailable T and a large proportion were considered hypogonadal. The low levels of LH suggested a central origin of the relative hypoandrogenicity.
Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer’s disease
An interesting compilation of information relating to Alzheimer’s the impact estrogen and testosterone may have in protecting against the disease.